Sub-acute Toxicity of Brown Rice Kefir Powder

Supaporn Chunchom, Sirirat Deeseenthum, Chusri Talubmook

Abstract


Toxicity study of medicines or plant products should be carried out to see whether they are safe for human application. Our previous research showed that high dose (4,000 mg/kg) of some rice kefir powder exhibited an acute toxicity. The present study was therefore, designed to determine sub-acute toxicity and confirm immunomodulatory activity of kefir powder from brown rice; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDMLKP), Red Hawm (RHKP) and Hawm Nil (HNKP). The experiments were carried out in Wistar rats. The kefir powder; KDMLKP, RHKP and HNKP at the doses of 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg were given orally to the rats every 2 days for 14 days. Sub-acute toxicity of the kefir was compared to that of PBS treated controls. The results showed that all the doses of the kefir powder did not produce mortality or any symptoms of toxicity in the kefir powder treated rats. Moreover, the kefir powder did not alter relative organ weight (ROW) in the kefir powder treated rats when compared to that in the controls. Increasing KDMLKP significantly (p<0.05) increased body weight gain while RHKP and HNKP showed the other way round. In addition, increasing RHKP and HNKP significantly (p<0.05) decreased food intake while increasing KDMLKP did not produce the alteration of food intake in the treated rats when compared to that in the controls. The kefir powder treated rats had feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly (p<0.05) better than that in the controls, but this did not the rats received KDMLKP at the doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg. KDMLKP at the doses higher than 500 mg/kg may cause renal function as they significantly (p<0.05) decreased BS, but at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05) increased Glob when compared to those in controls. RHKP at the doses higher than 1,000 mg/kg may cause renal and hepatic functions as they significantly (p<0.05) altered BS, Crea, UA, Alb, Glob, AST, and ALT when compared to those in controls. Moreover, the HNKP at the doses higher than 500 mg/kg may cause renal and hepatic functions as they significantly (p<0.05) altered BS, BUN, UA, Alb, Glob, and AST when compared to those in controls. In addition, the kefir powder significantly (p<0.05) decreased neutrophils, but significantly (p<0.05) increased lymphocytes when compared to those in controls.
These findings indicate that the kefir powder from brown rice; KDMLKP, RHKP and HNKP exerts non sub-acute toxicity when the dose at or less than 500 mg/kg is administrated every 2 days for 14 days. Repeat administration of the kefir powder at the doses of higher than 1,000 mg/kg may affect hepatic and renal functions. Its activity on decreasing neutrophils and increasing lymphocytes may result in the increment of globulin which is probably leading to improve immunomodulatory activity.

Keywords


Khao Dawk Mali 105, Red Hawm, Hawm Nil, rice kefir powder, sub-acute toxicity

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SCIENCE  AND  TECHNOLOGY  RMUTT  JOURNAL
คณะวิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยี
Faculty of Science and Technology
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